Through its subsidiary, PT Freeport Indonesia (PT-FI), FCX mines one of the world’s largest copper and gold deposits in the Grasberg minerals district in Papua, Indonesia In addition to copper and gold, PT-FI produces silver PT-FI operates in the remote highlands of the Sudirman Mountain Range in the province of Papua, Indonesia, which is on the western half of the island of New Guinea
The average grade of copper ores in the 21st century is below 06% copper, with a proportion of economic ore minerals (including copper) being less than 2% of the total volume of the ore rock A key objective in the metallurgical treatment of any ore is the separation of ore ,
Mixed copper ores are treated through different processes depending on the degree of oxidation as well as the consumption of ac With the availability of real-time technology that can reliably measure differences between oxide and sulphide minerals, it is now possible to control a mixed copper ore ,
Jan 01, 2009· Two case studies are presented: the Prominent Hill copper/gold mine and the Rapu Rapu zinc/copper mine Mining is based on a rational grade control strategy involving a number of factors, including strong geological control, advanced geostatistical approaches, such as conditional simulation, and optimisation of the ore blocking to meet .
Hear from Ben Reid, senior mine geologist at Cowal, on how the Grade Control team have added to Cowal’s bottom line Cowal has been using BMT to adjust for blast movement since 2008 and the grade control team have calculated a 7% improvement in mill head grade compared with mining blocks in their pre-blast locations
The average grade of copper ores in the 21st century is below 06 percent copper, with the proportion of ore minerals being less than 2 percent of the total volume of the ore rock
11 PHASES OF A MINING PROJECT There are different phases of a mining project, beginning with mineral ore exploration and ending with the post-closure period What , For example, the copper content of a good grade copper ore may be only one quarter of one percent The gold content of a good grade gold ore may be only a few one-hundredths of
Grade control A large Copper open pit mine in Chile has lost US$134 million over a 10-year period because of suboptimal grade control procedures based on the blast holes sampling It was estimated by the difference between actually used blast hole sampling protocol and its optimized version (P Carrasco: WCSB1, Denmark 2003)
The average grade of copper ore mined has declined by 18% per year over the past 12 years to 059% in 2017 The fall is due to declining grades at some of the largest, long-life mines and the development of new low-grade min The declining grade trend will continue because of the same two factors
Ore loss occurs when material containing grade (ore) is incorrectly sent to a waste dump When a cost is given for Ore Loss, it is the sale value of the metal (gold, copper) recovered from this ore (ie ore tonnes x grade x recovery rate x metal price) Dilution occurs when waste is unintentionally with material containing ore and sent to the .
Abstract For a mining operation, minimizing misclassification of ore and waste during grade control is of critical importance This paper reviews grade control procedures for classifying ore and waste that are based on estimation and conditional simulation approach
Some slags contain concentrations of elements that are greater than average ore grad Copper ores mined by open pit methods have an average grade of 04 wt% Cu and those mined by underground methods have an average grade of 1 wt% Cu (Schlesinger, King, Sole, & Davenport, 2011)
A mechano-chemical process called Rapid Oxidative Leach® (ROL®) is the gamechanger for miners struggling to extract copper and gold from low-grade or The technology leaches 97-99 percent copper directly on-site in six to eight hours, from concentrates as low as 5 percent copper
CASE STUDY: GRADE CONTROL SYSTEMS AT EL VALLE-BOINAs MINE* Grade control refers to the process of assessing economic areas during mining operations The objective isto determine which geological resources become reserves and thus can be mined at a profit Grade control alsoinvolves the supervision of the mining operation in order to make sure
Mar 24, 2017· As a rule of thumb, open pit mining can process ore for $10 per tonne and, where the ore grade is more than double that at $20 per tonne, results would be ,
The world's 20 largest copper mines produce nearly 9 million metric tons of the precious metal a year, about 40 percent of the world's total copper mine capacity Chile and Peru, alone, account for about half of the copper mines on this list, but the US does make the cut, with two mines among the top 20
Nov 23, 2003· anticipated mining and grade control methods and size and type of equipment In block modeling, the size of the blocks in the model will be chosen to best match mining selectivity and the anticipated grade control method, sample density and sample statistics In the case of computer based modeling, the QP responsible
AVERAGE COPPER MINING GRADES IN CHILE 1999-2016 • The decrease in ore grade in Chile has been higher than the world average • Mining development in Chile began earlier and ore deposits and blocks with a higher concentration of ore have been exploited ,
Nov 04, 2013· Chile, the world's largest copper producing country, hosts six of the ten largest copper mines in the world, while the remaining four are located in Peru, Mexico and Indonesia Mining-technology profiles the ten biggest copper mines in the world, based on contained reserv
A Copper Flotation Flowsheet Because the copper in this type of ore usually assays only plus or minus 1% copper, the porphyry copper operations must be relatively large in order to be commercial The flowsheet in this study illustrates a typical 3,000 ton per day operation
medium and high grade ore stockpile destinations Quality control ensures that grade control samples are representative and laboratory biases are minimised Laboratory assays are confirmed correct to within a defined degree of accuracy and precision and the presence of “carryover” contamination between sample is monitored Mining equipment .
Handheld XRF can increase profitability in ore control as well as almost every phase of mining operations Whether you are conducting open pit or underground grade control, with portable handheld XRF analyzers, your job is made easier Narrowing the gap between planned production and actual production has long been a focus of mining operations
Jul 18, 2013· Effectiveness of ore grade control at operating mines depends on both the quality and quantity of the samples used Therefore, optimisation of grade control procedures requires analysis of sample quality and their spatial distribution
Abstract In some mining operations, one of the most important roles played by the geologist is the supervision of grade control In an open-pit operation, this involves the sampling of blast-hole cuttings produced by down-the-hole hammer drills and the classification of bench reserves into ore, low grade or waste material, or into various metallurgical typ
The essence of ore grade reconciliation is to identify, analyse and manage variance between planned and actual results in a way that highlights opportuniti A consistent record of poor reconciliation is an indication that this variance has not been adequately managed This would inevitably result in significant economic impact on mining compani Unfortunately, the issue of poor .
Cut-Off grade is the minimum grade required in order for a mineral or metal to be economically mined (or processed) Material found to be above this grade is considered to be ore, while material below this grade is considered to be waste Although in a variety of units can be used, the cut-off grade ,
Copper processing is a complicated process that begins with mining of the ore (less than 1% copper) and ends with sheets of 9999% pure copper called cathodes, which will ultimately be made into products for everyday useThe most common types of ore, copper oxide and copper sulfide, undergo two different processes, hydrometallurgy and pyrometallurgy, respectively, due to the different .
First Quantum’s CLC copper deposit is exceptionally rich, and with ore reserves grading 5% copper it is believed to be the highest-grade open-pit active copper mine worldwide
Grade control in open pit gold mine Maptek™ Vulcan™ is used for grade control in a bulk mineable Carlin-type gold system at Cortez Hills Mine in Nevada Located on the Battle Mountain-Eureka Trend, the Cortez Hills Mine (operated by Barrick Gold) is a uniquely mineralised Carlin ,